来源：高顿网校 发布时间：2016-10-26 13:05 责编：Judy
The Auditing and Attestation section tests knowledge and understanding of the following professional standards:Auditing standards promulgated in the United States of America(related to audits of an“Issuer”(a public company),a“Nonissuer”(an entity that is not a public company),governmental entities,not-for-profit entities,and employee benefit plans,standards related to attestation and assurance engagements,and standards for performing accounting and review services.
Candidates are expected to demonstrate an awareness of:(1)the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board(IAASB)and its role in establishing International Standards on Auditing(ISAs),(2)the differences between ISAs and U.S. auditing standards,and(3)the audit requirements under U.S. auditing standards that apply when they perform audit procedures on a U.S. company that supports an audit report based upon the auditing standards of another country,or the ISAs.
This section also tests knowledge of professional responsibilities of certified public accountants,including ethics and independence.
Candidates are also expected to demonstrate an awareness of:(1)the International Ethics Standards
Board for Accountants(IESBA)and its role in establishing requirements of the International
Federation of Accountants(IFAC)Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants,and(2)the independence requirements that apply when they perform audit procedures on a U.S. company that supports an audit report based upon the auditing standards of another country,or the ISAs.
In addition to demonstrating knowledge and understanding of the professional standards,candidates are required to demonstrate the skills required to apply that knowledge in performing auditing and attestation tasks as certified public accountants. The outline below specifies the tasks and related knowledge in which candidates are required to demonstrate proficiency:Candidates are also expected to perform the following tasks:
·Demonstrate an awareness and understanding of the process by which standards and professional requirements are established for audit,attestation, and other services performed by CPAs,including the role of standard-setting bodies within the U.S. and those bodies with the authority to promulgate international standards.
·Differentiate between audits,attestation and assurance services,compilations,and reviews.
·Differentiate between the professional standards for issuers and nonissuers.
·Identify situations that might be unethical or a violation of professional standards,perform research and consultations as appropriate,and determine the appropriate action.
·Recognize potentially unethical behavior of clients and determine the impact on the services being performed.
·Demonstrate the importance of identifying and adhering to requirements,rules,and standards that are established by licensing boards within their states, and which may place additional professional requirements specific to their state of practice.
·Appropriately apply professional requirements in practice,and differentiate between unconditional requirements and presumptively mandatory requirements.
·Exercise due care in the performance of work.
·Demonstrate an appropriate level of professional skepticism in the performance of work.
·Maintain independence in mental attitude in all matters relating to the audit.
·Research relevant professional literature.
I.Auditing and Attestation：Engagement Acceptance and Understanding the Assignment(12% - 16%)
A.Determine Nature and Scope of Engagement
B.Consider the Firm's Policies and Procedures Pertaining to Client Acceptance and Continuance
C.Communicate with the Predecessor Auditor
D.Establish an Understanding with the Client and Document the Understanding
Through an Engagement Letter or Other Written Communication with the Client
E.Consider Other Planning Matters
1.Consider using the work of other independent auditors
2.Determine the extent of the involvement of professionals possessing specialized skills
3.Consider the independence,objectivity,and competency of the internal audit function
F.Identify Matters Related to Planning and Prepare Documentation for Communications with Those Charged with Governance
II.Auditing and Attestation:Understanding the Entity and Its Environment(including Internal Control)(16% - 20%)
A.Determine and Document Materiality
B.Conduct and Document Risk Assessment Discussions Among Audit Team,Concurrently with Discussion on Susceptibility of the Entity's Financial Statement to Material Misstatement Due to Fraud
C.Consideration of Fraud
1.Identify characteristics of fraud
2.Document required discussions regarding risk of fraud
3.Document inquiries of management about fraud
4.Identify and assess risks that may result in material misstatements due to fraud
D.Perform and Document Risk Assessment Procedures
1.Identify,conduct and document appropriate inquiries of management and others within the entity
2.Perform appropriate analytical procedures to understand the entity and identify areas of risk
3.Obtain information to support inquiries through observation and inspection(including reading corporate minutes, etc.)
E.Consider Additional Aspects of the Entity and its Environment,including:Industry,Regulatory and Other External Factors;Strategies and Business Risks； Financial Performance
F.Consider Internal Control
1.Perform procedures to assess the control environment,including consideration of the COSO framework and identifying entity-level controls
2.Obtain and document an understanding of business processes and information flows
3.Determine the effect of information technology on the effectiveness of an entity's internal control
4.Perform risk assessment procedures to evaluate the design and implementation of internal controls relevant to an audit of financial statements
5.Identify key risks associated with general controls in a financial IT environment,including change management,backup/recovery,and network access(e.g. administrative rights)
6.Identify key risks associated with application functionality that supports financial transaction cycles,including:application access control(e.g.administrative access rights); controls over interfaces,integrations,and e-commerce;significant algorithms,reports,validation,edit checks,error handling,etc.
7.Assess whether the entity has designed controls to mitigate key risks associated with general controls or application functionality
8.Identify controls relevant to reliable financial reporting and the period-end financial reporting process
9.Consider limitations of internal control
10.Consider the effects of service organizations on internal control
11.Consider the risk of management override of internal controls
G.Document an Understanding of the Entity and its Environment,including Each Component of the Entity's Internal Control,in Order to Assess Risks
H.Assess and Document the Risk of Material Misstatements
1.Identify and document financial statement assertions and formulate audit objectives including significant financial statement balances,classes of transactions,disclosures,and accounting estimates
2.Relate the identified risks to relevant assertions and consider whether the risks could result in a material misstatement to the financial statements
3.Assess and document the risk of material misstatement that relates to both financial statement level and specific assertions
4.Identify and document conditions and events that may indicate risks of material misstatement
I.Identify and Document Significant Risks that Require Special Audit Consideration
1.Significant recent economic,accounting,or other developments
2.Related parties and related party transactions
3.Improper revenue recognition
4.Nonroutine or complex transactions
5.Significant accounting estimates
III.Auditing and Attestation:Performing Audit Procedures and Evaluating Evidence(16% - 20%)
A.Develop Overall Responses to Risks
1.Develop overall responses to risks identified and use the risks of material misstatement to drive the nature,timing,and extent of further audit procedures
2.Document significant risks identified,related controls evaluated,and overall responses to address assessed risks
3.Determine and document performance materiality/level(s)of tolerable misstatement
B.Perform Audit Procedures Responsive to Risks of Material Misstatement;Obtain and Document Evidence to Form a Basis for Conclusions
1.Design and perform audit procedures whose nature,timing,and extent are responsive to the assessed risk of material misstatement
2.Integrating audits:in an integrated audit of internal control over financial reporting and the financial statements,design and perform testing of controls to accomplish the objectives of both audits simultaneously
3.Design,perform,and document tests of controls to evaluate design effectiveness
4.Design,perform,and document tests of controls to evaluate operating effectiveness
5.Perform substantive procedures
6.Perform audit sampling
7.Perform analytical procedures
8.Confirm balances and/or transactions with third parties
9.Examine inventories and other assets
10.Perform other tests of details,balances,and journal entries
11.Perform computer-assisted audit techniques(CAATs),including data query,extraction,and analysis
12.Perform audit procedures on significant accounting estimates
13.Auditing fair value measurements and disclosures,including the use of specialists in evaluating estimates
14.Perform tests on unusual year-end transactions
15.Audits performed in accordance with International Standards on Auditing(ISAs)or auditing standards of another country:determine if differences exist and whether additional audit procedures are required
17.Obtain and evaluate lawyers' letters
18.Review subsequent events
19.Obtaining and placing reliance on representations from management
20.Identify material weaknesses,significant deficiencies,and other control deficiencies
IV.Auditing and Attestation:Evaluating Audit Findings,Communications,and Reporting(16% - 20%)
A.Perform Overall Analytical Procedures
B.Evaluate the Sufficiency and Appropriateness of Audit Evidence and Document Engagement Conclusions
C.Evaluate Whether Audit Documentation is in Accordance with Professional Standards
D.Review the Work Performed by Others,including Specialists and Other Auditors,to Provide Reasonable Assurance that Objectives are Achieved
E.Document the Summary of Uncorrected Misstatements and Related Conclusions
F.Evaluate Whether Financial Statements are Free of Material Misstatements
G.Consider the Entity's Ability to Continue as a Going Concern
H.Consider Other Information in Documents Containing Audited Financial Statements(e.g. Supplemental Information and Management's Discussion and Analysis)
I.Retain Audit Documentation as Required by Standards and Regulations
1.Reports on audited financial statements
2.Reports required by government auditing standards
3.Reports on compliance with laws and regulations
4.Reports on internal control
5.Reports on the processing of transactions by service organizations
6.Reports on agreed-upon procedures
7.Reports on financial forecasts and projections
8.Reports on pro forma financial information
11.Communicate internal control related matters identified in the audit
12.Communications with those charged with governance
13.Subsequent discovery of facts existing at the date of the auditor's report
14.Consideration after the report date of omitted procedures
V.Accounting and Review Services Engagements(12% - 16%)
A.Plan the Engagement
1.Determine nature and scope of engagement
2.Decide whether to accept or continue the client and engagement including determining the appropriateness of the engagement to meet the client's needs and consideration of independence standards
3.Establish an understanding with the client and document the understanding through an engagement letter or other written communication with the client
4.Consider change in engagement
5.Determine if reports are to be used by third parties
B.Obtain and Document Evidence to Form a Basis for Conclusions
1.Obtain an understanding of the client's operations,business,and industry
2.Obtain knowledge of accounting principles and practices in the industry and the client
3.Perform analytical procedures for review services
4.Obtain representations from management for review services
5.Perform other engagement procedures
6.Consider departures from generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP)or other comprehensive basis of accounting (OCBOA)
7.Prepare documentation from evidence gathered
8.Retain documentation as required by standards
9.Review the work performed to provide reasonable assurance that objectives are achieved
1.Reports on compilations
2.Reports on reviews
3.Restricted use of reports
4.Communicating to management and others
5.Subsequent discovery of facts existing at the date of the report
6.Consider degree of responsibility for supplementary information
VI.Professional Responsibilities(16% - 20%)
A.Ethics and Independence
1.Code of Professional Conduct(AICPA)
2.Requirements related to issuers,including the PCAOB,the SEC and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002,Titles II and III,Section 303
3.Government Accountability Office(GAO)
4.Department of Labor(DOL)
5.Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants(IFAC)
B.Other Professional Responsibilities
1.A firm's system of quality control
2.General role,structure,and requirements of the PCAOB(Title I and Title IV of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002)
References - Auditing and Attestation
·AICPA Statements on Auditing Standards and Interpretations
·Public Company Accounting Oversight Board(PCAOB)Standards(SEC-Approved)and Related Rules,PCAOB Staff Questions and Answers,and PCAOB Staff Audit Practice Alerts
·U.S. Government Accountability Office Government Auditing Standards
·Single Audit Act,as amended
·Office of Management and Budget(OMB)Circular A-133
·AICPA Statements on Quality Control Standards
·AICPA Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services and Interpretations
·AICPA Statements on Standards for Attestation Engagements and Interpretations
·AICPA Audit and Accounting Guides
·AICPA Code of Professional Conduct
·IFAC Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants
·Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
·Department of Labor Guidelines and Interpretive Bulletins re:Auditor Independence
·SEC Independence Rules
·Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974
·The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission(COSO):Internal Control - Integrated Framework
·Current textbooks on auditing,attestation services,ethics,and independence
·International Standards on Auditing(ISAs)
USCPA是美国注册会计师的简称，是美国注册会计师协会American Institute of Certified Public Accountants(AICPA)旗下专业会计师认证，也是美国 ...
报考USCPA选好州后可以申请USCPA准考证(即NTS-Notice to Schedule)。在学历评估收到后，需要在NASBA网站上申请所选州的NTS。首先需要缴费，缴费 ...
Q4考季的通过率公布，数据令人吃惊，AICPA越来越容易了！ 昨天和7月份AICPA考纲一同公布的，还有18年Q4考季的整体通过率： 我们来看看18年一整年 ...
根据AICPA官网发布的19年1月和7月的考纲，学姐总结出了以下变化： REG 1.考纲参考文献清单中增加了Treasury Regulations(财政部规定) Treasury R ...
考取AICPA是工作需求也是个人需要，不断充电和学习一直是财会人需要坚持的事情。 在 AICPA 的考生群体中，除了在国外读书的留学生之外，还有一部 ...
2018年的AICPA考试已经落下帷幕，19年考也面临川普新税法加入REG考试，就在刚刚，AICPA官网再次公布7月新的考试蓝图！ 那么，2019你年的AICPA考 ...
系统地安排AICPA考试 AICPA 考试各科目的成绩有效期是18个月，这也意味着大家必须在一年半的时间内通过四个科目的考试。其实AICPA考试的通过率不 ...
如果说读研深造是财务生提高价值的必要条件之一，那么备战 AICPA 则是留美学子的常用战术。 Arlan学姐今天介绍的主人公左左姑娘，在国内读会计， ...
今天Arlan学姐采访的这位主人公，张先生，在2018年高分通过了 AICPA 四门考试，全科均分90。 他是一位80后奶爸，留美硕士，曾在四大从事审计工作 ...
一直以来，曾有不少人提出质疑：AICPA资质在国内用处何在？ 在这个问题中， AICPA 无疑是焦点之一，讨论其在国内财会业的作用何在，我们不妨来听 ...
随着2018年 AICPA Q4考季的即将结束， AICPA 官网也给出了2019年的考试时间以及成绩公布时间，2019年准考生和准备考试的USCPA考生都先了解下，做 ...
当你还在犹豫的时候，别人已经拿到了证书。 财会行业的竞争一直都非常激烈，财会证书之中含金量比较高的除了CPA就是 AICPA 了。 首先公布下成绩 ...
众所周知，美国注册会计师 AICPA 可与香港注册会计师HKICPA、加拿大特许专业会计师CPA Canada、澳洲注册会计师ASCPA、英国及威尔特许会计师ICAEW ...
人生应该如何度过，Arlan学姐一直在思考这个问题，每个人对于这个问题的答案都会不同，今天给大家分享一位对自己的未来有着清晰规划的小姐姐~ 毕 ...
本人非财会专业，四大审计4年+美股上市公司reporting 8年，英语水平大学六级、剑桥商务英语高级，平时工作中会计、审计相关的英语阅读量比较大。 ...